26 degrees isotherm is observed at a depth between 50 and 100 meters, and therefore testimony 1 is not correct. 43. “The experiment will set up a trio of spacecraft that fly in formation in the form of a one million-kilometre-long equilateral triangle that makes lasers shine between the ship.” The experiment in question relates to (response C) 2. A common agreement between Gandhism and Marxism is (Response- A) Let me conclude my answer to your question for too long by answering a point that I will address very strongly, even if it may seem terminological. It is tempting to say that Marx is a figure of the Enlightenment, and how can he present him as a source of criticism of modernity? I think it`s a tiring and useless way to think about intellectual history. It is simply a question of denying the weight and obesity of liberalism in the organisation of modernity which, until today, has a dominant maintenance in society and which, I would say, is even totally complicit in the so-called right-wing populist efforts to oppose it. The Political Enlightenment and its legacy are strongly marked by liberal thought and ideals. It completely distorts things, seeing the Enlightenment as a simple bunch of teachings and ideas in which Locke and Mill and Hegel and Marx can be thrown. It is much more intellectually honest to say that there were radically divergent voices like Marx, and Marx was part of the tradition of romantic thought in many ways. If you take a book like Christopher Hills` The World Turned Upside Down, in which he looks at the first radical and communist ideas at the time of the English Revolution, there are Forerunners of Marx who presented ideas that, if they had prevailed instead of being oppressed, would have prevailed on the path that England and Europe would have taken from the beginning of modernity to the end of modernity. These ideas were Marx`s forerunners and are the beginning of an evolution that led to Marx on romantic thought, both in England and Germany.
In fact, very often in this book, when Christopher Hill wants to present some of these radical ideas, he quotes Blake, like other left-wing historians and intellectual historians like E.P. Thompson. But romantics are often seen as “against” elucidations. So what about a path that some will call counter-recognition under the label “Lights”? So I think it`s just a dogmatic catch of the word “Enlightenment” to insist that characters like Marx and Gandhi and the romantics should all be counted as part of the Enlightenment. It brings much more clarity (not to mention intellectual honesty), simply admitting, which is indeed the case, that terms such as “modernity” and “light” are self-gratifying notions that have arisen when it became clear that liberal doctrine is over and that institutions (including the institutions and policies surrounding capital, as well as the capital constraints created with “social democracy”) had marked Europe`s imprint. I therefore exist and I repeat: modernity is defined penetratingly by liberalism and by social-democratic ideas that limit classical liberalism. And the fact is that modernity, so understood, even if, as I said, it was dominant, was not and is not completely within its reach. There were deviant radical voices (which went far beyond the social-democratic constraints that liberalism conveys) against modernity, from the first radicals of the 17th century to Gandhi, through the romantics and Marx. To regard these latter ideas as part of the Enlightenment and the modernity it defines simply means inflating our categories so that they are unrecognizable and not useful in achieving a clear understanding of the issues at stake.